ua ru en

№2 (40) 2020

Demography and social economy, 2020, 2(40):139-154
doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/dse2020.02.139
UDC 314.384

PhD, Department of Epidemiology
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
E-mail: jalal@uab.edu
ORCID 0000-0002-8337-3480

MS, Department of Sociology
East West University
Aft abnagar, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh
E-mail: helal@ewubd.edu
ORCID 0000-0002-0767-3174

MS, Department of Sociology
University of Dhaka
Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh
E-mail: mostafizur.r@hotmail.com
ORCID 0000-0001-9354-5613

Language: English
Abstract: Most of the studies that focused on women’s employment and fertility documented an inverse association between women’s labor force participation and fertility, mostly in the context of developed countries. However, it remains unclear whether a similar association exists in lower-income and pro-natalist countries, where the cost of childcare is relatively cheaper. Given this gap in the literature, this study examines the associations of women’s occupation with two outcomes of fertility-related behaviors — actual and ideal number of children in Bangladesh. The study used the 2014 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Bangladesh. The analysis included 14,318 married women aged 18 years or older. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of women’s occupation with the actual and ideal number of children. In general, women’s labor force participation is inversely associated with the actual and ideal number of children in Bangladesh. Compared to non-working women, women in the professional/skilled sector were more likely to have 2 or fewer living children (OR=1.35; 95 % CI=1.16-1.58) and 2 or fewer ideal number of children (OR=1.51; 95 % CI: 1.21-1.88) in the fully adjusted model. Further, the association significantly varies by the levels of exposure to mass media such that women in the professional/skilled sector have a higher probability of having 2 or fewer living children at the higher levels of mass media exposure. The findings have implications for the social and population policies of Bangladesh. Policymakers can promote income-generating activities and encourage women’s participation in economic spheres, which have the potential to lower the fertility and control population growth at the national level.
Key words: women’s occupation, actual and ideal number of children, role incompatibility, mass media.
1. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). (2019). “State of World Population 2019.” New York: United Nations Population Fund. https://doi.org/10.18356/be6ccd17-en
2. Asadullah, M. Niaz, Antonio, Savoia, & Wahiduddin, Mahmud (2014). Paths to Development: Is There a Bangladesh Surprise? World Development, 62, 138-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.05.013
3. Chowdhury, Ahmed M. R., Abbas Bhuiya, Mahbub E. Chowdhury, Sabrina Rasheed, Zakir Hussain, and Lincoln C. Chen. (2013). “The Bangladesh Paradox: Exceptional Health Achievement Despite Economic Poverty.” The Lancet, 382(9906):1734–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62148-0
4. National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), and ICF. (2019). “Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18: Key Indicators.” Dhaka, Bangladesh, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NIPORT, and ICF.
5. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2015). “Report on Bangladesh Sample Vital Statistics 2014.” BBS, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
6. Ministry of Women and Children Affairs. (2020). “Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s Commitment Gender Equality and Women Empowerment.” Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, Dhaka, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
7. Asian Development Bank. (2015). “Women in the Workforce: An Unmet Potential in Asia and the Pacific.” Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank. Association of Women’s Occupation with Actual and Ideal Number of Children in Bangladesh...
8. Becker, Gary S. (1960). “An Economic Analysis of Fertility, Demographic and Economic Change in Developed Countries: A Conference of the Universities.” National Bureau Сommittee for Economic Research, 209-231.
9. Kalwij, Adriaan S. (2000). “The Effects of Female Employment Status on the Presence and Number of Children.” Journal of Population Economics, 13(2):221–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001480050135
10. Brewster, Karin L. and Ronald R. Rindfuss. (2000). “Fertility and Women’s Employment in Industrialized Nations.” Annual Review of Sociology, 26(1):271–96. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.271
11. Ahn, Namkee and Pedro Mira. (2002). “A Note on the Changing Relationship between Fertility and Female Employment Rates in Developed Countries.” Journal of Population Economics, 15(4):667–82. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001480100078
12. Engelhardt, Henriette and Alexia Prskawetz. (2004). “On the Changing Correlation between Fertility and Female Employment over Space and Time.” European Journal of Population, 20(1):35–62. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EUJP.0000014543.95571.3b
13. Heckman, James J. and Thomas E. MaCurdy. (1980). “A Life Cycle Model of Female Labour Supply.” The Review of Economic Studies, 47(1):47–74. https://doi.org/10.2307/2297103
14. Mroz, Thomas A. (1987). “The Sensitivity of an Empirical Model of Married Women’s Hours of Work to Economic and Statistical Assumptions.” Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 55(4):765–99. https://doi.org/10.2307/1911029
15. Beguy, Donatien. (2009). “The Impact of Female Employment on Fertility in Dakar (Senegal) and Lome (Togo).” Demographic Research, 20:97–128. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2009.20.7
16. Fang, Hai, Karen N. Eggleston, John A. Rizzo, and Richard J. Zeckhauser. (2013). “Jobs and Kids: Female Employment and Fertility in China.” IZA Journal of Labor & Development, 2(1):12. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-9020-2-12
17. Van den Broeck, Goedele and Miet Maertens. (2015). “Female Employment Reduces Fertility in Rural Senegal.” PloS One, 10(3):1–15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122086
18. Bloom, David E., David Canning, Günther Fink, and Jocelyn E. Finlay. (2009). “Fertility, Female Labor Force Participation, and the Demographic Dividend.” Journal of Economic Growth, 14(2):79–101. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10887-009-9039-9
19. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2015). “Fertility Differentials in Bangladesh: Trends and Determinants.” BBS, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
20. Hasan, Muhammad M., Mirajul Islam, Saifullah Sakib, and Iqramul Haq. (2018). “Influences of Proximate Determinates on Fertility among Urban and Rural Women in Bangladesh.” Dhaka University Journal of Science, 66(1):49–54.
21.Islam, Sabina and Mossamet K. Nesa. (2009). “Fertility Transition in Bangladesh: The Role of Education.” Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences, 46(4):195–201.
22. Mohammad, Ahbab, Fazle Rabbi, Shamal C. Karmaker, Shahadat A. Mallick, and Sayema Sharmin. (2013). “Determinants of Birth Spacing and Effect of Birth Spacing on Fertility in Bangladesh.” Dhaka University Journal of Science, 61(1):105–10 https://doi.org/10.3329/dujs.v61i1.15105
23. Abedin, Sumaiya. (2011). “Identification of Fertility Enhancing and Inhibiting Factors: A Study on Married Adolescents in Bangladesh.” Asian Social Science, 7(5):191. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v7n5p191
24. Ahammed, Benojir, Md R. Kabir, Md M. Abedin, Mohammad Ali, and Md A. Islam. (2019).“Determinants of Different Birth Intervals of Ever Married Women: Evidence from Bangladesh.” Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health ,7(3):450–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2019.01.011
25. Upadhyay, Ushma D. and Michelle J. Hindin. (2005). “Do Higher Status and More Autonomous Women Have Longer Birth Intervals?: Results from Cebu, Philippines.” Social Science & Medicine, 60(11):2641–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.11.032
26. Boulay, Marc, J. Douglas Storey, and Suruchi Sood. (2002). “Indirect Exposure to a Family Planning Mass Media Campaign in Nepal.” Journal of Health Communication, 7(5):379–99. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730290001774
27. Rutstein, Shea O. and Kiersten Johnson. (2004). “The DHS Wealth Index. DHS Comparative Reports No. 6.” Calverton: ORC Macro.
28. Filmer, Deon and Lant H. Pritchett. (2001). “Estimating Wealth Effects without Expenditure Data—or Tears: An Application to Educational Enrollments in States of India.” Demography, 38(1):115–32. https://doi.org/10.1353/dem.2001.0003
29. Begum, Hasna. (1993). “Family Planning and Social Position of Women.” Bioethics, 7(2– 3):218–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8519.1993.tb00287.x
30. Mahmud, Simeen. (1988). “Exploring the Relationship between Women’s Work and Fertility: The Bangladesh Context.” The Bangladesh Development Studies, 16(4):99–113.
31. Kabir, M. Alamgir, Khan, M., Rahman, M., and Patwary, F. Karim. (2005). “Impact of Woman’s Status on Fertility and Contraceptive Use in Bangladesh: Evidence from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 1999-2000.” Journal of Family Welfare, 51(1):1-10.
32. Risse, Leonora. (2006). “Does Maternity Leave Encourage Higher Birth Rates?: An Analysis of the Australian Labour Force.” Australian Journal of Labour Economics, 9(4):343
33. Barkat-e-Khuda, Md, R. Haque, Mohammad S. Hasan, Nurul Alam, and Samiha Barkat. (2018). “Fertility Preferences in Bangladesh.” Family Demography in Asia: A Comparative Analysis of Fertility Preferences, 3:30-51. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781785363559.00008
34. Khandker, Shahidur R. (1985). “Women’s Role in Household Productive Activities and Fertility in Bangladesh.” Center Discussion Paper, 488. Yale University, New Haven,DC.
35. Doepke, Matthias and Michèle Tertilt. (2018). “Women’s Empowerment, the Gender Gap in Desired Fertility, and Fertility Outcomes in Developing Countries.” AEA Papers and Proceedings, 108:358-362. https://doi.org/10.1257/pandp.20181085
36. Rahman, M. Mosfequr, Md G. Mostofa, and Md A. Hoque. (2014). “Women’s Household Decision-Making Autonomy and Contraceptive Behavior among Bangladeshi Women.” Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare, 5(1):9–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.srhc.2013.12.003
37. Uddin, Jalal, Muhammad Z. Hossin, and Mohammad H. Pulok. (2017). “Couple’s Concordance and Discordance in Household Decision-Making and Married Women’s Use of Modern Contraceptives in Bangladesh.” BMC Women’s Health, 17(1):1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-017-0462-3
38. Uddin, Jalal, Mohammad H. Pulok, and Md Nasim-Us Sabah. (2016). “Correlates of Unmet Need for Contraception in Bangladesh: Does Couples’ Concordance in Household Decision Making Matter?” Contraception, 94(1):18–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2016.02.026
39. Upadhyay, Ushma D. and Deborah Karasek. (2012). “Women’s Empowerment and Ideal Family Size: An Examination of DHS Empowerment Measures in Sub-Saharan Africa.” International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 38(2):78–89. https://doi.org/10.1363/3807812
40. Rahman, M. Shafiqur. (2007). “Socioeconomic Disparities in Health, Nutrition, and Population in Bangladesh: Do Education and Exposure to Media Reduce It.” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 6(3):286–93. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2007.286.293
41. Islam, M. Mazharul and Saidul Hasan. (2000). “Mass Media Exposure and Its Impact on Family Planning in Bangladesh.” Journal of Biosocial Science, 32(4):513–26. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021932000005137
42. Kabir, M. and Islam, M. Amirul. (2000). “The Impact of Mass Media Family Planning Programmes on Current Use of Contraception in Urban Bangladesh.” Journal of Biosocial Science, 32(3):411–19. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021932000004119
43. Kulkarni, Manojkumar S. (2003). “Exposure to Mass Media and Its Impact on the Use of Family Planning Methods by Women in Goa.” Health and Population- Perspectives and Issues, 26(2):87–93.
44. Bryant, John. (2007). “Theories of Fertility Decline and the Evidence from Development Indicators.” Population and Development Review, 33(1):101–27. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2007.00160.x
45. Dev, S. Mahendra, James, K., and Sen, B. (2002). “Causes of Fertility Decline in India and Bangladesh: Role of Community.” Economic and Political Weekly, 37(43):4447–54.

» pdf