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№4 (38) 2019

Demography and social economy, 2019, 4(38):11-29
doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/dse2019.04.011
UDC 314.116–026.24(477) «1921–1923»(477)

О.M. Gladun
Dr. Sc. (Еconomics), deputy director
Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies
of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
01032, Kyiv, Blvd.Taras Shevchenko., 60
E-mail: gladun.ua@gmail.com
ORCID 0000-0001-6354-6180

O.P. Rudnytskyi
Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies
of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
01032, Kyiv, Blvd.Taras Shevchenko, 60
ORCID 0000-0001-5661-8596

N.V. Kulyk
Chief Economist
Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies
of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
01032, Kyiv, Blvd. Taras Shevchenko 60
E-mail: nataliyakylik@gmail.com
ORCID 0000-0002-2022-6117

Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: In the first half of the twentieth century, Ukraine experienced three famines. The least researched in the demographic aspect is the famine of 1921–1923. The purpose of the study was to estimate the demographic losses of Ukraine in the period of famine of 1921–1923 by causes of death, by settlement and by sex and age. The article presents the main results of the estimation of the losses of humanity of the UkrSSR due to the famine of 1921–1923. The estimation of losses is based on the methodology of demographic reconstruction developed by one of the authors. The advantage of this methodology, despite the complexity and laboriousness, is that its use protects the researcher from the subjectivism inherent in calculating population losses from incomplete information from fragmentary sources. An information base was formed that most adequately restores the time series of indicators of the number, composition and movement of the population for the period 1920–1926. During the formation of the information base, the quality of statistical data was evaluated and the correction was made accordingly. The estimation of demographic losses of the UkrSSR in 1921–1923 was conducted in the territorial borders at the date of the census of 1926. For the first time, estimates of losses were separately obtained for residents of the Ukrainian urban and rural population for each year of famine, by sex and age groups. The estimate of direct losses (excesses deaths) for the entire period of famine is 935.8 thousand people, of which 12.2 % are in cities, 87.8% – in the rural areas. The uneven distribution of direct losses by years is revealed: the maximum falls on 1922 (54.4 %), while on 1921 – 31.5 %, on 1923 – 14.1 %. It was determined that the sexual structure of losses is characterized by a significant advantage of the male: the excess deaths in 1921–1923 were 555.9 thousand men and 379.9 thousand women (59.5% and 40.5% respectively). It has been confirmed that children and the elderly are the most vulnerable during social disasters: 54.4 % of excess deaths are accounted for by these two age categories. It has been found that the losses of humanity in the early 1920s were the result not only of a famine tragedy but also of mass epidemics. For the first time, the literature identifies the components of direct losses of the population in 1921–1923 from famine (502.5 thousand people or 53.7 %) and epidemics (433.4 thousand people or 46.3 %). Indirect losses (lost births), which make up 1029.0 thousand, were also estimated for the first time. The state policy of the Soviet authorities on assistance to the starving territories of Ukraine, which influenced the size of demographic losses, is shown.
Key words: famine of 1921–1923, demographic losses of the UkrSSR, excesses deaths, lost births.
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