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№3 (37) 2019

Demography and social economy, 2019, 3(37): 86-98
doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/dse2019.03.086
UDC 314.1

PhD (Economics), Leading Researcher
Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies
of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
01032, Ukraine, Kyiv, Taras Shevchenko Blvd., 60
E-mail: polyakova_@ukr.net
ORCID 0000-0003-4630-642X

Fellow at the Center of Slavic,
Eurasian and East European Studies
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (USA)
FedEx Global Education Center
501 Pittsboro St. CB#5125 Chapel Hill, NC 27599-5125
E-mail: olehw@aol.com
ORCID 0000-0002-3146-8509

Language: English
Abstract: The aims of this paper are the estimation of demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the Ukrainian diaspora in Canada, and the description of methodological problems arising in the process of its implementation. Population censuses, which represent the entire population of Canada, including those of Ukrainian origin, are considered as the most comprehensive, informative and reliable source of information on Ukrainians in Canada. The paper shows that methodological problems are caused both by the specifics of the ethnic group and by changes in census procedures. The article focuses on the changes in Canadian ethnic terminology in early population censuses. It is noted that census statistics experienced a significant change in the definition of ethnicity. Starting in 1986, the question on ethnicity includes descendants of mixed ethnic marriages; this makes it impossible to compare numbers of Ukrainians in previous years. A map of the distribution of ethnic Ukrainians was constructed based on data from the 2016 Canadian population census. The paper analyzes changes in the age and sex structures of the population of Ukrainian origin and their language characteristics. Trends in the number of persons of Ukrainian origin, who consider Ukrainian as their mother tongue, are assessed. We show that the proportion of persons over 65 years of age with Ukrainian mother tongue is constantly increasing, while the respective proportion of younger persons is decreasing. The number of Canadian Ukrainians who know Ukrainian is decreasing. Their distribution by age groups has a clearly defined right-sided asymmetry, i.e., the top of the curve is constantly shifting towards the older age groups. The article shows that the overwhelming majority (90 % and more) of ethnic Ukrainians know and use English, while French is much less prevalent. The proportion of persons who know both official languages is increasing and this proportion among ethnic Ukrainians is similar to the proportion for the whole population of Canada. The proportion of persons who do not speak any of the official language is decreasing and is less than one percent. We show that Ukrainians have fairly good socio-economic positions relative to the Canadian population as an ethnic group. For example, their position in the labor market is in some cases more advantageous compared to the national average.
Key words: Ukrainian diaspora, ethnicity, ethnic Ukrainians, single ethnic origin, multiple origin, descendants of single ethnic marriages, descendants of multiple marriages, population censuses, age – sex pyramid, emigration, waves of emigration.
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