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№3 (34) 2018

Demography and social economy, 2018, 3(34):71-85
doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/dse2018.03.071
UDC 314.7(477)

PhD (Political Science), Senior Researcher
Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies
of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
01032, Ukraine, Kyiv, blvd Taras Shevchenkо, 60
E-mail: tetyana_hnatyuk@bigmir.net

Language: English
Abstract: The article describes labour exploitation as a risk of Ukrainian labour migration. The author estimates the approximate size of Ukrainian labour migrants who experienced labour exploitation while working abroad. The analysis is based on the system of indicators of labour exploitation, developed by the International Labour Organization, and the results of three modular sampling surveys on labour migration that were conducted in Ukraine under the same methodology and cover the periods 2007–2008, 2010–2012, and 2015–2017. The study uses six of the nine indicators of the International Labour Organization (“excessive working days or hours”, “hazardous work”, “very bad working conditions”, “no respect of labour laws or contract signed”, “low or no salary”, “no social protection”), which correspond to the twelve indicators that are presented in the modular sample surveys. Attention is paid to the following indicators of labour exploitation: “over 61 working hours per week”, “unfavourable working conditions”, “work was different from expectations”, “transfer from one employer to another”, “work place was different from expectations”, “non-payment or insufficient payment of salary”, “no written labour contract”, “no paid sick leave”, “no weekly rest day”, “no health insurance”, “no social security”, “ineligible to any benefits provided in labour contract”. Additionally the article analyses the ways of searching a job abroad and the legal status of Ukrainian labour migrants in destination countries. It has been established that from 10 % to 20 % of Ukrainian labour migrants have experienced some kind of labour exploitation while working abroad. There is up to 50 % of Ukrainian labour migrants who have been in the risk group due to looking for a job through unofficial channels and the absence of a written contract with an employer. The main reasons for the increase of labour exploitation among Ukrainian labour migrants are the low level of awareness about the phenomenon of labour exploitation, their rights, as well as the neglect of their own security.
Key words: labour exploitation, trafficking in human beings, Ukrainian labour migrants, labour migration.
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