Журнал "Демографія та соціальна економіка"

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№2 (20) 2013

Demography and social economy, 2013, 2(20):28-39
doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/dse2013.02.028

N.O. Rynhach
PhD, Senior Researcher M.V. Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies, NAS of Ukraine

Section: Achieving the millennium development goals.
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: The article analyses the measures undertaken by Ukraine within the framework of the country’s commitment to the Millennium Declaration. The author focuses in particular on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal in relation to reducing child mortality (MDG 4).
Highlighted are the differences in the formulation of targets and the identification of national indicators in Ukraine and certain countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, as well as the differences between the situation with infant mortality in Ukraine and the developed countries. Ukraine is characterized by lower child mortality in the first hours and the first days after birth and, respectively, a smaller percentage of neonatal deaths within the rate of infant mortality and mortality in the age group up to five years. The author presents the dynamics of main indicators characterizing achievement of targets related to MDG 4 inUkraine. Early fulfillment of both target indicators (infant and under-five years mortality) by Ukraine is stated. It is noted that in Ukraine together with the reduction of under 5 years child mortality proportion of deaths in the range of 1–4 years, too, is reduced (in 1995 this share was more than a quarter of all cases, while in 2012 only 16,5% of the deaths are attributed to this age).
However, despite the achievement of the results planned for 2015 already in 2010, the level of infant mortality in Ukraine is 2–4 times higher than in developed countries, and certain regions are even farther behind. In addition, significant regional differences and inhomogeneity of the dynamics of child mortality in certain areas is noted, the necessity of a thorough analysis of the situation to determine the causes of this trend is suggested.
On par with the analysis of the changes in infant mortality rate which to a greater extent forms under-five mortality figures in the country, the author focuses on over-one-year mortality and compares by structure the death causes in both age ranges, including certain external causes.
A detailed analysis of the situation with the mortality rate in the age group of one to four years is given. It is proved that the bulk of the losses in this age group relates to external causes, constituting 33,4% of all deaths. Among individual causes accidental drowning prevails, as well as exposure to fire and smoke, amounting in 2012 to almost a third of all unnatural deaths in this age group. Almost every fifth death in the age of 1–4 years, or 19,4%, is due to congenital defects, while neoplasms are responsible for 12 % of. A significant number of child deaths in the 1–4 years age range (or 15 % of all deaths from external causes) due to unspecified injuries and long-term effects of unspecified external factors is the evidence of the incomplete investigation into the causes of child deaths and the possibility of intentional concealment of criminal acts or gross negligence and neglect. Lack of proper care can pose a health hazard and even cause the child’s death not only due to external causes, but also because of a number of diseases and medical conditions (infectious diseases, respiratory diseases), the reason being non-compliance with the required sanitary rules. Given the high dependence of children under five on adults, the need for preventive measures aimed at responsible parenthood is underlined.
Further reduction in child mortality in Ukraine appears feasible thanks to a coordinated simultaneous effect in socio-economic and health spheres (development and implementation of programs to improve living conditions and environment, motivation for responsible parenthood, improving mother-and-child health care, further spread of perinatal and reproductive technologies, introduction of scientific standards and protocols for treatment and care, sensible use of international experience (mainly of the most effective and affordable interventions), promoting healthy way of life in the Ukrainian society through information and education.
Key words: child mortality, infant mortality, under-five mortality, Millennium Development Goals – Ukraine.
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