Журнал "Демографія та соціальна економіка"

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№2 (20) 2013

Demography and social economy, 2013, 2(20):115-124
doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/dse2013.02.115

O.M. Paliy
PhD, M.V. Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies, NAS of Ukraine

Section: Demographic processes
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: The very idea of Human Development first sounded in Human Development Report 1990, and it inter- preted Human Development particularly as «a process of enlarging people’s choices». The tendencies of world demographic development during last few decades in the most unambiguous manner demonstrate more and more rising opportunities of free choice in human reproduction sphere, and people’s abilities to control their life.
In the late 20 century – early 21 century such features of human development as a strengthening of gender equality in family and society, gaining high level of female education on a mass scale, women’s aspiration to make a career beyond family framework appear to be the main factors of low fertility. The latter undermines the basis of human development sustainability – a succession of generations is broken, a natural reproductive potential of generations is lost.
Contrary to a decay of fertility, there is a great progress of modern civilization in the sphere of mortality. To-day, the healthy way of life, as an outcome of voluntary choice, became the key factor of human health and long life in all developed countries. Due to it, life expectancy rose more than by a decade since 1970. However, the whole progress in human health and longevity owed to Human Development is not enough to balance the demographic losses stipulated by low fertility. A deficiency of the natural basis of generation replacement undermines the foundations of existence of the Western civilization that matured through about 3 thousand years.
There are still substantial restraints for the people’s choice in the demographic reproduction sphere in Ukraine. Regarding fertility, it appears predominantly as a deterioration of reproductive health. The same concerns life expectancy, which depends not only on behavioral factors, but also on both environment, condition of labor, foodstuff, drinking water etc. In spite of prevalence of low enough common culture of behavior concerning one’s and children’s health as a factor of mortality rate and life expectancy, nor State plays appropriate role in creating favorable conditions for the long and healthy life. This is why people are deprived of a choice.
On the global scale, they consider the overpopulation as a major threat to sustainable Human De- velopment. The overpopulation involves the destabilization of ecosystems, the interethnic conflicts as a consequence of international migration, emerging of chaotic megalopolises, water stock and energy depletion etc.
It is possible to slow down population growth only due to Human Development. As to prospective of the revival of an extended reproduction of European native population, it is possible to predict such a course of events, only if there should be some radical shift in the idea of happiness and life success among majority of people, and if there should be an ideal in mass awareness not «society of consumption» but good family with more than one child.
Key words: human reproduction, human development, depopulation, overpopulation, free choice.
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