-

ua ru en


№3 (34) 2018

Demography and social economy, 2018, 3(34):71-85
doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/dse2018.03.071
UDC 314.7(477)
JEL CLASSIFICATION: J 61, O15

T.O. HNATYUK
PhD (Political Science), Senior Researcher
Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies
of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
01032, Ukraine, Kyiv, blvd Taras Shevchenkо, 60
E-mail: tetyana_hnatyuk@bigmir.net

THE LIFE TABLES CONSTRUCTION AT SUBREGIONAL LEVEL CONSTRUCTION OF LIFE TABLES AT SUBREGIONAL LEVEL
Section: DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES
Language: English
Abstract: The article describes labour exploitation as a risk of Ukrainian labour migration. The author estimates the approximate size of Ukrainian labour migrants who experienced labour exploitation while working abroad. The analysis is based on the system of indicators of labour exploitation, developed by the International Labour Organization, and the results of three modular sampling surveys on labour migration that were conducted in Ukraine under the same methodology and cover the periods 2007–2008, 2010–2012, and 2015–2017. The study uses six of the nine indicators of the International Labour Organization (“excessive working days or hours”, “hazardous work”, “very bad working conditions”, “no respect of labour laws or contract signed”, “low or no salary”, “no social protection”), which correspond to the twelve indicators that are presented in the modular sample surveys. Attention is paid to the following indicators of labour exploitation: “over 61 working hours per week”, “unfavourable working conditions”, “work was different from expectations”, “transfer from one employer to another”, “work place was different from expectations”, “non-payment or insufficient payment of salary”, “no written labour contract”, “no paid sick leave”, “no weekly rest day”, “no health insurance”, “no social security”, “ineligible to any benefits provided in labour contract”. Additionally the article analyses the ways of searching a job abroad and the legal status of Ukrainian labour migrants in destination countries. It has been established that from 10 % to 20 % of Ukrainian labour migrants have experienced some kind of labour exploitation while working abroad. There is up to 50 % of Ukrainian labour migrants who have been in the risk group due to looking for a job through unofficial channels and the absence of a written contract with an employer. The main reasons for the increase of labour exploitation among Ukrainian labour migrants are the low level of awareness about the phenomenon of labour exploitation, their rights, as well as the neglect of their own security.
Key words: labour exploitation, trafficking in human beings, Ukrainian labour migrants, labour migration.
References:
1. ZExplanations for indicators of trafficking for labour exploitation. International Labour Organization. (2009). ilo.org. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_105035.pdf
2. Lists of indicators of trafficking in human beings. International Labour Organization. (2009). ilo.org. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---declaration/documents/ publication/wcms_105884.pdf
3. Ollus, N., & Jokinen, A. (n.d.). Trafficking for Forced Labour and Labour Exploitation – Setting the Scene. The European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI). heuni.fi. Retrieved from http://www.heuni.fi/material/attachments/heuni/reports/6KmRLQd2d/HEUNI_report_68_netti.pdf.
4. Short-Term Migrant Workers: The Case of Ukraine. (2017). International Labour Organization. Geneva. ilo.org. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---migrant/documents/publication/wcms_613663.pdf.
5. World Migration Report 2018. (2017). International Organization for Migration. iom.int. Retrieved from https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/wmr_2018_en.pdf [in English].
6. Report on the methodology, organization and results of a modular sample survey on labour migration in Ukraine. (2013). International Labour Organization, Decent Work Technical Support Team and Country Office for Central and Estern Europe (DWT/CO-Budapest). Budapest: ILO ilo.org. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---europe/---ro-geneva/---sro-budapest/documents/publication/wcms_244693.pdf
7. Doslidzhennya z pytan’ mihratsiyi ta torhivli lyud’my v Ukrayini [Research on migration and trafficking in human beings in Ukraine, 2017]. (2017). International organization for migration. iom.int. Retrieved from http://www.iom.org.ua/sites/default/files/migration_and_human_trafficking_in_ukraine_2017_ukr.pdf [in Ukrainian].
8. Zovnishnya trudova mihratsiya naselennya Ukrayiny [External labor migration of the population of Ukraine]. (2009). Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
9. Zovnishnya trudova mihratsiya naselennya Ukrayiny (za rezul’tatamy modul’noho vybirkovoho obstezhennya). [External labor migration of the population of Ukraine (based on the results of a modular sample survey)]. (2017). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
10. Orlean, A.M. (2011). Ekspluatatsiya lyudyny: ponyattya ta klasyfikatsiya osnovnykh vydiv (kryminal’nopravovyy aspekt) [Human exploitation: concept and classification of the main types (criminal-legal aspect)]. Visnyk Natsional’noyi akademiyi prokuratury Ukrayiny - Bulletin of the National Academy of Public Prosecutor of Ukraine, 4. Retrieved from http://www.visnyknapu.gp.gov.ua/data/issues-2011/Visnyk-NAPU_4_2011.pdf [in Ukrainian].
11. Orlean, A.M., & Pustova, O.V. (2013). Protydiya torhivli lyud my, vchynenoyi z metoyu ekspluatatsiyi pratsi [Countering trafficking in human beings for the purpose of exploitation of labor.]. Kyiv : Feniks. Retrieved from http://www.stoptrafficking.org/sites/default/files/mom/documents/protidiya_torgivli_lyudmiprint_0.pdf [in Ukrainian].
12. Protydiya torhivli lyud’my v Ukrayini. Statystyka MOM stanom na 31 hrudnya 2017 roku [Countering Human Trafficking in Ukraine. IOM statistics as at 31 December 2017]. (2017). International Organization for Migration. iom.int. Retrieved from http://iom.org.ua/sites/default/files/iom_vot_statistics_ukrdec2017.pdf [in Ukrainian].
13. Protokol pro poperedzhennya i prypynennya torhivli lyud’my, osoblyvo zhinkamy i dit’my, i pokarannya za neyi, shcho dopovnyuye Konventsiyu Orhanizatsiyi Ob’yednanykh Natsiy proty transnatsional’noyi orhanizovanoyi zlochynnosti. Pryynyatyy rezolyutsiyeyu 55/25 Heneral’noyi Asambleyi vid 15 lystopada 2000 roku [Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Adopted by General Assembly resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000]. (2000, 15 November). Verkhovna Rada Ukrayiny. zakon2.rada.gov.ua. Retrieved from http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_791 [in Ukrainian]
14. Suspil’no-politychni pohlyady v Ukrayini. 9 chervnya – 7 lypnya 2017 [Socio-political views in Ukraine. June 9 - July 7, 2017]. (2017). GfK. Ukraine. gfk.com. Retrieved from https://www.gfk.com/fileadmin/user_upload/dyna_content/UA/02-News-2017/Ukrainian_Poll_August_2017.pdf [in Ukrainian].
15. Yaroshevych, M., & Malynovska, O. (2018). Chy ye suchasna mihratsiya z Ukrayiny do Pol’shchi (ne) tryvalym yavyshchem? [Is modern migration from Ukraine to Poland (non) a long-term phenomenon?]. Analitychna zapyska. Kyyiv-Varshava. Traven - Analytical note. Kiev-Warsaw [in Ukrainian]

» pdf