j-dse@ukr.net

" "
-

ua ru en


1 (21) 2014

Demography and social economy, 2014, 1(21):233-242
doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/dse2014.01.233

L.A. Zhurakovska
senior onsultant National Institute for Strategic Studies

TRENDS OF EDUCATIONAL MIGRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT GLOBALIZATION
Section: The articles of junior researchers.
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: Internationalization of productive processes, spreading of information and computer technologies lead to the unification of requirements to employees qualification, standards of work management, as well as increasingly larger role of modern professions, for which national identity loses its former importance, and geographical boundaries no longer restrict employment.
In this context grows the importance of international educational migration as significant intellectual form of migration activity of population. In overwhelming majority of developed countries educational migration is regarded as one of means of developing human capital, needed for the development of national economies, and powerful geopolitical resource, used for spread and promotion of cultural values and technologies of the countries where foreigners receive education.
Fast moving augmentation of education migrants speeded up the development of world market of educational services, forming a specific branch of world economy international market of educational services with the size exceeding USD 100 bln of which over USD 60 bln international higher education services.
Apart from economic benefits educational migration is the source of supplying the economy with highly qualified personnel and is regarded as the first step to labour migration. Intellectual migration, including educational one, brings significant dividends to the recipient countries if they effectively regulate these movements and use their potential, while the donor countries meet with considerable challenges. Globalization of world economy constantly deepens. On the one side it increases opportunities of individual countries of using intellectual resources, on the other side global processes considerably sharpen competition and present real threat to the low or middle income countries.
Presently almost all of the developed countries deal with the problems of shortage in highly qualified labour or the absence of its critical mass in certain sectors of economy, and some of them have poor de- mographical situation. This leads to the real competitive struggle for students and specialists in particular fields on the global markets of highly qualified labour, which would only deepen with time. That is why one of the key goals of both educational and migration policies is the creation of environment for keeping and expanded reproduction of highly qualified personnel including education migrants. In order to multiply the positive effect of educational migration it is vital to form the effective regulation mechanism, capable to adapt rapidly to development needs at the domestic level and global changes of economic environment.
Key words: globalization, educational migration, foreign students, demographic resource.
References:
1. Skott, P. (2000). Globalizacija i universitet [Globalization and University]. VVSh Alma Mater, 4 [in Russian].
2. Makburni, G. (2001). Globalizacija: novaja paradigma politiki vysshego obrazovanija. Rychagi globalizacii kak politicheskaja paradigma vysshego obrazovanija [Globalization: new paradigm for higher education policy. Gglobalization leves as a political paradigm of higher education]. Vysshee obrazovanie v Evrope – Higher Education in Europe, Vol. XXVI, 1. Retrieved from www.technical.bmstu.ru/istoch/reforma/glob.doc [in Russian].
3. Il’in, I.V. (2007). Mezhdunarodnaja migracija naselenija v kontekste globalizacii mirovoi ekonomiki. [International migration in the context of globalization of the world economy]. Migration and development. Materialy mezhdunarodnoj konferencii (Pjatye Valenteevskie chteniia), (13–15 sentjabria 2007 goda). Proceedings of the International Conference. V.A. Ionceva (Ed.). (Vols. 1-2; Vol. 2). Moscow: MGU, SP Mysl’ [in Russian].
4. Kremen, V.H. (Ed.). (2009). Bila knyha natsional’noi osvity Ukrainy [White book of national education of Ukraine]. National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
5. OECD (2013), Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD [in English].
6. Altbach, P.G. (2006). Globalization and the university: Realities in an unequal world, in Forest, J.J.F. & Altbach P.G. (eds.), International handbook of higher education, Vol. 1, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer, 121-140 [in English].
7. Internalization and Trade in Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges. Paris: OECD, 2004 [in English].
8. Open Doors 2012. Special Reports: Economic Impact of International Students. Retrieved from http://www.iie.org/Research-and-Publications/Open-Doors/Data/Special-Reports/Economic-Impact-of-International-Students [in English].
9. Economic Impact of International Education in Canada. An Update. Final Report. Roslyn Kunin & Associates, Inc. (RKA, Inc.). Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. May, 2012 [in English].
10. United Nations, (2006). Mezhdunarodnaia migracija i razvitie. Doklad General’nogo sekretaria. [International migration and development: report of the Secretary-General]. 18 May. A/60/871 [in Russian].
11. OECD (2013), International Migration Outlook 2013, Paris: OECD [in English].
12. OECD; World Bank. 2007. Cross-border Tertiary Education: A Way towards Capacity Development. Paris: OECD; World Bank [in English].
13. Chellaraj, G. Maskus, K. and Mattoo, A. (2006). Skilled Immigrants, Higher Education, and U.S. Innovation. International Migration, Remittances, and the Brain Drain. Wash.: World Bank, 245-259 [in English].
14. «Utechka mozgov» kak global’noe javlenie. Prichiny i posledstviia. [The «brain drain» as a global phenomenon. Causes and Consequences] Informacionno-analiticheskoe agentstvo Centr gumanitarnyh tehnologij – Information-analytical agency Centre for Humanitarian Technologies. http://gtmarket.ru Retrieved from http://gtmarket.ru/laboratory/expertize/2008/1653 [in Russian].

» pdf