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1 (29) 2017

Demography and social economy, 2017, 1(29):37-53
Doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/dse2017.01.037
JEL CLASSIFICATION: 21, I 29

.. Khmelevska
PhD (Economics), Lead Researcher
Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
01032, Ukraine, Kyiv, Blvd Tarasa Shevchenka, 60
E-mail: kh_o@ukr.net

TUTORING AS A COMPONENT OF THE SHADOW EDUCATION AND APPROACHES TO ITS ASSESSMENT IN UKRAINE
Section: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: The prevalence of tutoring is the least studied domain of education in Ukraine, particularly with regard to the restricted opportunities to its analysis based on the official statistics of education. When summarizing international experience, we can argue that private supplementary learning within basic curriculum should be regarded as an integral part of the shadow education. Thus, a range of methodological problems can be solved. A rapid accumulation of empirical data about private tutoring at international and national levels allow us to concentrate at prevailing directions in academic literature on the causes and consequences of the shadow education expansion to define its parameters, modes and localization. A combination of various data sources on providers and recipients of supplementary education services allow obtaining of new quantitative and qualitative data, including analysis of subjects of producing and consuming the shadow education.
Data of 20042016 sociological surveys for the problems of tutoring in Ukraine have been analyzed. The study revealed that this phenomenon is quite prevalent among future entrants, despite of introduction of the External Independent Evaluation in 2008. The most informative data sources in terms of private tutoring in Ukraine are presented by special sociological surveys and specialized internet-sites. Still, the methodology of the program Household Budget Survey in Ukraine suggests such opportunities. As a supplementary tool of assessment of intensity of tutoring in Ukraine, the Google Trends specialize service can be used.
Key words: tutoring, supplementary schooling, shadow education, tutoring services, household expenses for tutoring.
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